aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
aum&daum&d
aum&daum&d
aum&dEE
EE
E
oo
oo
oKKKKKMo0gpm'kwd,apmifMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
Mo0gpm'kwd,apmifMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
Mo0gpm'kwd,apmif
aum&dE
oKtoif;awmfxHokdYa&;ykdYcJhaom
&Sifaygvk\'kwd,ajrmufpmapmifukd qifjcifESvkH;oGif;avhvmjcif;
tufzf? 0def; ruf vD,kd'ftufzf? 0def; ruf vD,kd'f
tufzf? 0def; ruf vD,kd'ftufzf? 0def; ruf vD,kd'f
tufzf? 0def; ruf vD,kd'f
(F. Wayne Mac Leod)
rmwdumrmwdum
rmwdumrmwdum
rmwdum
pum;OD; ------------------------------------------------- 1
aum&dE
oKMo0gpmukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif; -------------------------- 5
1/ qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif; ------------- 9
2/ tpDtpOfrsm;ajymif;vJjcif; -------------------------- 21
3/ xdckdufemusifzG,fpmwpfapmif ----------------------- 35
4/ arSmufvSefolrsm;ESihf oHwrefrsm; ------------------- 49
5/ wrefawmf\ pdwfcs,kHMunfrI ------------------------ 59
6/ zkH;uG,frxm;aom rsufESmrsm;ubkef;awmfukd
xif[yfjcif; ---------------------------------------- 71
7/ owif;aumif;w&m;awmf\trIawmfjrwf ------------- 79
8/ jyif;xefpGm eif;ajccH&aomfvnf; usKd;yJhysufqD;jcif;
okdYra&muf ------------------------------------------ 89
9/ ,m,DwJjzpfaomþajrtdrf -------------------------- 103
10/ ocifc&pfawmf\ oHwrefrsm; ----------------------- 113
11/ trIawmfaqmifolcsif; -------------------------------127
12/ xkdolwkdYtxJrSxGufyg -------------------------------- 145
13/ cufxefMurf;wrf;aompmwpfapmif------------------- 153
14/ pGefYBuJay;urf;jcif;aus;Zl;awmf ---------------------- 167
15/ tvSLvufaqmifukd pDrHcefYcGJjcif; --------------------- 177
16/ pGefYBuJay;urf;jcif;\aumif;BuD;r*Fvmrsm; ------------189
Light To My Path Book Distribution
Sydney Mines, NS CANADA B1V 1Y5
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
aum&daum&d
aum&daum&d
aum&dEE
EE
E
oo
oo
oKKKKKMo0gpm'kwd,apmifMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
Mo0gpm'kwd,apmifMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
Mo0gpm'kwd,apmif
aum&dE
oKtoif;awmfxHokdYa&;ykdYcJhaom
&Sifaygvk\'kwd,ajrmufpmapmifukd qifjcifESvkH;oGif;avhvmjcif;
tufzf? 0def; ruf vD,kd'ftufzf? 0def; ruf vD,kd'f
tufzf? 0def; ruf vD,kd'ftufzf? 0def; ruf vD,kd'f
tufzf? 0def; ruf vD,kd'f
(F. Wayne Mac Leod)
rmwdumrmwdum
rmwdumrmwdum
rmwdum
pum;OD; ------------------------------------------------- 1
aum&dE
oKMo0gpmukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif; -------------------------- 5
1/ qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif; ------------- 9
2/ tpDtpOfrsm;ajymif;vJjcif; -------------------------- 21
3/ xdckdufemusifzG,fpmwpfapmif ----------------------- 35
4/ arSmufvSefolrsm;ESihf oHwrefrsm; ------------------- 49
5/ wrefawmf\ pdwfcs,kHMunfrI ------------------------ 59
6/ zkH;uG,frxm;aom rsufESmrsm;ubkef;awmfukd
xif[yfjcif; ---------------------------------------- 71
7/ owif;aumif;w&m;awmf\trIawmfjrwf ------------- 79
8/ jyif;xefpGm eif;ajccH&aomfvnf; usKd;yJhysufqD;jcif;
okdYra&muf ------------------------------------------ 89
9/ ,m,DwJjzpfaomþajrtdrf -------------------------- 103
10/ ocifc&pfawmf\ oHwrefrsm; ----------------------- 113
11/ trIawmfaqmifolcsif; -------------------------------127
12/ xkdolwkdYtxJrSxGufyg -------------------------------- 145
13/ cufxefMurf;wrf;aompmwpfapmif------------------- 153
14/ pGefYBuJay;urf;jcif;aus;Zl;awmf ---------------------- 167
15/ tvSLvufaqmifukd pDrHcefYcGJjcif; --------------------- 177
16/ pGefYBuJay;urf;jcif;\aumif;BuD;r*Fvmrsm; ------------189
Light To My Path Book Distribution
Sydney Mines, NS CANADA B1V 1Y5
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
17/ aygvkvlaMumufvm; -------------------------------- 203
18/ ocifbk&m;ü *kPf,l0g<um;jcif; --------------------- 217
19/ tBuD;qkH;aomwrefawmfrsm;\wkdufckdufjcif; ---------- 229
20/ tenf;i,faomavmuD0g<um;jcif; ------------------- 241
21/ ukd,füpl;aomql; ------------------------------------ 253
22/ oifwkdYü 0efxkyf0efykd;rjzpfvkd ------------------------ 265
23/ pkHvifjcif;twGuf&nfrSef;jcif; ------------------------ 275
pum;OD;pum;OD;
pum;OD;pum;OD;
pum;OD;
aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;xHokdY &Sifaygvka&;om;ay;ykdYcJhaom
'kwd,pmapmifonf yxrpmapmif\aemufqufwGJjzpfonf/ þ (aum
&dE
oKMo0g') yxrpmapmifwGif &Sifaygvku aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;tm;
4if;wkdY\toif;awmftwGif;ü jzpfysufaeaomjyóemrsm;aMumifh
jypfwifarmif;rJcJhonf/ olwkdYonfowif;aumif;w&m;awmfukd
BuJjzefYjcif;trIü tqD;twm;taESmuft,SufrjzpfrnfhtaMumif;
xkdjyóemrsm;ukd ukdifwG,fajz&Sif;MuzkdY &Sifaygvkutav;teuf
wkdufwGef;cJhonf/ vltcsKdUu þyxrpmapmif\ cufxefrmausmrIukd
txifvGJcJhMuonf/ þ'kwd,pmapmifwGif &Sifaygvkurdrd\&nf&G,fcsuf
ukdt"dyÜg,faumufvGJcJhMuaomolrsm;ESihf jyefvnfoihfjrwfjcif;ukd jyKvkyfzkdY
BudK;pm;cJhonf/
þ'kwd,pmapmif&Sd &Sifaygvk\'kwd,&nf&G,fcsufrSm ukd,fukd
ukd,f wrefawmfrsm;[k a<u;aMumfMuonfh rSm;,Gif;aom q&mrsm;\
vSnfhpm; jcif;ukd cHae&aomolrsm;ukd oGefoifay;zkdYjzpfonf/ þrSm;,Gif;
aom q&mrsm;onf &Sifaygvk\vkyfykdifcGihftmPmukd avsmhcsí &Sifaygvk
\ trIawmfvkyfief;ukd xdckdufepfemapzkdY BudK;pm;cJhMuonf/ þokdYjyK
vkyf&mwGif olwkdYonf aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;ukd vSnfhjzm;cJhMuonf/
&Sifaygvkonf þ'kwd,pmapmifwGif owif;aumif;w&m;
a[mjcif;trIawmftaMumif;ukd tus,fw0ifhajymjyxm;onf/
aum&dE
oKNrdKU&Sd rSm;,Gif;aomya&mzufrsm;onf qkd;0g;aomykHOyrmrsm;ukd
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
17/ aygvkvlaMumufvm; -------------------------------- 203
18/ ocifbk&m;ü *kPf,l0g<um;jcif; --------------------- 217
19/ tBuD;qkH;aomwrefawmfrsm;\wkdufckdufjcif; ---------- 229
20/ tenf;i,faomavmuD0g<um;jcif; ------------------- 241
21/ ukd,füpl;aomql; ------------------------------------ 253
22/ oifwkdYü 0efxkyf0efykd;rjzpfvkd ------------------------ 265
23/ pkHvifjcif;twGuf&nfrSef;jcif; ------------------------ 275
pum;OD;pum;OD;
pum;OD;pum;OD;
pum;OD;
aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;xHokdY &Sifaygvka&;om;ay;ykdYcJhaom
'kwd,pmapmifonf yxrpmapmif\aemufqufwGJjzpfonf/ þ (aum
&dE
oKMo0g') yxrpmapmifwGif &Sifaygvku aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;tm;
4if;wkdY\toif;awmftwGif;ü jzpfysufaeaomjyóemrsm;aMumifh
jypfwifarmif;rJcJhonf/ olwkdYonfowif;aumif;w&m;awmfukd
BuJjzefYjcif;trIü tqD;twm;taESmuft,SufrjzpfrnfhtaMumif;
xkdjyóemrsm;ukd ukdifwG,fajz&Sif;MuzkdY &Sifaygvkutav;teuf
wkdufwGef;cJhonf/ vltcsKdUu þyxrpmapmif\ cufxefrmausmrIukd
txifvGJcJhMuonf/ þ'kwd,pmapmifwGif &Sifaygvkurdrd\&nf&G,fcsuf
ukdt"dyÜg,faumufvGJcJhMuaomolrsm;ESihf jyefvnfoihfjrwfjcif;ukd jyKvkyfzkdY
BudK;pm;cJhonf/
þ'kwd,pmapmif&Sd &Sifaygvk\'kwd,&nf&G,fcsufrSm ukd,fukd
ukd,f wrefawmfrsm;[k a<u;aMumfMuonfh rSm;,Gif;aom q&mrsm;\
vSnfhpm; jcif;ukd cHae&aomolrsm;ukd oGefoifay;zkdYjzpfonf/ þrSm;,Gif;
aom q&mrsm;onf &Sifaygvk\vkyfykdifcGihftmPmukd avsmhcsí &Sifaygvk
\ trIawmfvkyfief;ukd xdckdufepfemapzkdY BudK;pm;cJhMuonf/ þokdYjyK
vkyf&mwGif olwkdYonf aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;ukd vSnfhjzm;cJhMuonf/
&Sifaygvkonf þ'kwd,pmapmifwGif owif;aumif;w&m;
a[mjcif;trIawmftaMumif;ukd tus,fw0ifhajymjyxm;onf/
aum&dE
oKNrdKU&Sd rSm;,Gif;aomya&mzufrsm;onf qkd;0g;aomykHOyrmrsm;ukd
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
wnfaqmufaecJhMuonf/ xkdaMumihf &Sifaygvku aum&dE
oKtoif;om;
rsm;tm; ocifc&pfawmf\ ppfrSefaomoHwrefrsm;jzpfMuzkdY pdefac:cJh
onf/ avmuDom;rsm;xHü ocifc&pfawmf\bkef;awmfukd xif&Sm;jyo
MuzdkY &Sifaygvku olwkdYukdtoday;cJhonf/ olwkdY\ajrcE¨mrsm;onf
,m,DomjzpfNyD;? xkdcE¨mrsm;ukd ocifbk&m;\trIawmftwGuf ay;tyf
vQifbkef;toa&ESihf jynfhpkHaomcE¨monf olwkdYukdaumif;uifbkHü
apmifhpm;aernfjzpfaMumif;ukd owd&aeMuzkdY pdefac:cJhonf/ olkwdkYykdif
aomt&mcyfodrf;ukd ocifbk&m;tm;ay;tyfí aus;Zl;awmfü
ajymifajrmuf MuzdkYqifhac:onf/
&Sifaygvku aum&dE
oK,kHMunfolrsm;twGuf t&mtm;vkH;vG,ful
cJhvdrfhrnf[k uwdray;cJhyg/ trSefqkd&vQif ocifbk&m;twGufaMumihf
vltcsKdUrSm 'ku©a&mufaecJhMuNyD;jzpfonf/ &Sifaygvku þyk*¾dKvfrsm;ukd
þcufcJjcif;tcsdefü ESpfodrfhay;vkdí ocifa,½Iukd4if;wkdY\arQmfvifh
csuftjzpfESihf pl;pkdufxm;MuapvkdcJhonf/
aum&dE
oKMo0g'pmapmifonf ocifbk&m;ukdtrIawmfjrwfü
*kPfwifhapvkdaomolrsm;twGuf trIawmfvufpGJusrf;wpfusrf;jzpf
onf/ aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;xHokdY a&;om;ay;ykdYcJhaom þ'kwd,pm
apmifwGif yk*¾dKvfa&;qufqHa&;rsm;ü ½kef;uefae&jcif;rsm;? trIaqmif
tcsif;csif;Mum;ü txifvGJrSm;rIrsm;? rSm;,Gif;aompdwf&if;pdwfxm;rsm;?
½kyfykdif;qkdif&mqif;&J'ku©rsm;? raocsmra&&mrIrsm;? avmuDpkHprf;aESmuf
,Sufjcif;rsm;ponf t&mtm;vkH;ukd vdyfrla&;om;xm;onf/
ocifbk&m;xHü tcsdefjynfhaomfvnf;aumif;? tcsdefykdif;aomf
vnf;aumif; tapcHvkdaomolrsm;onf þpmapmif&Sd tajccHpnf;rsOf;
Oya'orsm;ukd aumif;rGefpGm oifMum;wwfajrmufxm;&rnfjzpfonf/
tcef;wpfcef;pD\tpü&nfñTef;xm;aom usrf;csufrsm;ukd zwf
½IzkdYtcsdef,lyg/ uREkfyf\&nf&G,fcsufrSm or®musrf;pm\ae&mukdtpm;
xkd;zkdYr[kwfyg/ or®musrf;pmukd &Sif;vif;vmapzkdYjzpfonf/ aum&dE
oKMo
0g'pm'kwd,apmifü uREkfyfrNcHKikHrdaomt&mrsm;pGm&SdaeaMumif;ukd uREkfyf
owdjyKrdygonf/ tvGefajymifajrmufvSaom þpmapmifüawGU&onfh
or®mw&m;rsm;ESihf 4if;wkdY\vufawGU&,lusihfokH;p&m tcsufrsm;tm;vkH;
ukd rnfolurQjynfhjynfh00okH;oyfa&;om;Ekdifrnfr[kwfyg/ tay:,H
oabmukdom uREkfyfNcHKikHokH;oyfEkdifonf[k arQmfvifhygonf/ xkdokdYjzpf
aomaMumihf þusrf;apmifrSaz:jyay;xm;aom or®mw&m;rsm;\
vufawGUusihfokH;&eftcsufrsm;wGif pmzwfolwkdif;onf oefY&Sif;aom
0dnmOfawmf\vrf;jyjcif;ukd&SmBuHMu&rnfjzpfonf/ þpmtkyfü uREkfyf
&nfñTef;az:jyxm;aom tajccHpnf;rsOf;Oya'orsm;ukd oefY&Sif;aom
0dnmOfawmfu oifhtoufwmü tokH;jyKrnfhtaMumif;rSm uREkfyf\qk
awmif;csufjzpfonf/ þpmtkyfonf or®musrf;pmxJokdY oihfukdOD;aqmif
oGm;&eftwGufvnf;aumif;? or®musrf;pm\vufawGU&,lusihfokH;&ef
tcsufrsm;ukd oihf&JUukd,fawGUb0tajctaersm;ESihf qufpyfay;&ef
twGufvnf;aumif;? bk&m;ocif\vufxJrS wefqmyvmwpfck omjzpf
onf/ þpmtkyfukd oihftoufwmü xkdokdYaumif;BuD;ay;&ef bk&m;ocif
ESpfoufjcif;&Sdygapaomf.../
tufzf 0def; rufvD,kd'f
2 3
pum;OD;
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
wnfaqmufaecJhMuonf/ xkdaMumihf &Sifaygvku aum&dE
oKtoif;om;
rsm;tm; ocifc&pfawmf\ ppfrSefaomoHwrefrsm;jzpfMuzkdY pdefac:cJh
onf/ avmuDom;rsm;xHü ocifc&pfawmf\bkef;awmfukd xif&Sm;jyo
MuzdkY &Sifaygvku olwkdYukdtoday;cJhonf/ olwkdY\ajrcE¨mrsm;onf
,m,DomjzpfNyD;? xkdcE¨mrsm;ukd ocifbk&m;\trIawmftwGuf ay;tyf
vQifbkef;toa&ESihf jynfhpkHaomcE¨monf olwkdYukdaumif;uifbkHü
apmifhpm;aernfjzpfaMumif;ukd owd&aeMuzkdY pdefac:cJhonf/ olkwdkYykdif
aomt&mcyfodrf;ukd ocifbk&m;tm;ay;tyfí aus;Zl;awmfü
ajymifajrmuf MuzdkYqifhac:onf/
&Sifaygvku aum&dE
oK,kHMunfolrsm;twGuf t&mtm;vkH;vG,ful
cJhvdrfhrnf[k uwdray;cJhyg/ trSefqkd&vQif ocifbk&m;twGufaMumihf
vltcsKdUrSm 'ku©a&mufaecJhMuNyD;jzpfonf/ &Sifaygvku þyk*¾dKvfrsm;ukd
þcufcJjcif;tcsdefü ESpfodrfhay;vkdí ocifa,½Iukd4if;wkdY\arQmfvifh
csuftjzpfESihf pl;pkdufxm;MuapvkdcJhonf/
aum&dE
oKMo0g'pmapmifonf ocifbk&m;ukdtrIawmfjrwfü
*kPfwifhapvkdaomolrsm;twGuf trIawmfvufpGJusrf;wpfusrf;jzpf
onf/ aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;xHokdY a&;om;ay;ykdYcJhaom þ'kwd,pm
apmifwGif yk*¾dKvfa&;qufqHa&;rsm;ü ½kef;uefae&jcif;rsm;? trIaqmif
tcsif;csif;Mum;ü txifvGJrSm;rIrsm;? rSm;,Gif;aompdwf&if;pdwfxm;rsm;?
½kyfykdif;qkdif&mqif;&J'ku©rsm;? raocsmra&&mrIrsm;? avmuDpkHprf;aESmuf
,Sufjcif;rsm;ponf t&mtm;vkH;ukd vdyfrla&;om;xm;onf/
ocifbk&m;xHü tcsdefjynfhaomfvnf;aumif;? tcsdefykdif;aomf
vnf;aumif; tapcHvkdaomolrsm;onf þpmapmif&Sd tajccHpnf;rsOf;
Oya'orsm;ukd aumif;rGefpGm oifMum;wwfajrmufxm;&rnfjzpfonf/
tcef;wpfcef;pD\tpü&nfñTef;xm;aom usrf;csufrsm;ukd zwf
½IzkdYtcsdef,lyg/ uREkfyf\&nf&G,fcsufrSm or®musrf;pm\ae&mukdtpm;
xkd;zkdYr[kwfyg/ or®musrf;pmukd &Sif;vif;vmapzkdYjzpfonf/ aum&dE
oKMo
0g'pm'kwd,apmifü uREkfyfrNcHKikHrdaomt&mrsm;pGm&SdaeaMumif;ukd uREkfyf
owdjyKrdygonf/ tvGefajymifajrmufvSaom þpmapmifüawGU&onfh
or®mw&m;rsm;ESihf 4if;wkdY\vufawGU&,lusihfokH;p&m tcsufrsm;tm;vkH;
ukd rnfolurQjynfhjynfh00okH;oyfa&;om;Ekdifrnfr[kwfyg/ tay:,H
oabmukdom uREkfyfNcHKikHokH;oyfEkdifonf[k arQmfvifhygonf/ xkdokdYjzpf
aomaMumihf þusrf;apmifrSaz:jyay;xm;aom or®mw&m;rsm;\
vufawGUusihfokH;&eftcsufrsm;wGif pmzwfolwkdif;onf oefY&Sif;aom
0dnmOfawmf\vrf;jyjcif;ukd&SmBuHMu&rnfjzpfonf/ þpmtkyfü uREkfyf
&nfñTef;az:jyxm;aom tajccHpnf;rsOf;Oya'orsm;ukd oefY&Sif;aom
0dnmOfawmfu oifhtoufwmü tokH;jyKrnfhtaMumif;rSm uREkfyf\qk
awmif;csufjzpfonf/ þpmtkyfonf or®musrf;pmxJokdY oihfukdOD;aqmif
oGm;&eftwGufvnf;aumif;? or®musrf;pm\vufawGU&,lusihfokH;&ef
tcsufrsm;ukd oihf&JUukd,fawGUb0tajctaersm;ESihf qufpyfay;&ef
twGufvnf;aumif;? bk&m;ocif\vufxJrS wefqmyvmwpfck omjzpf
onf/ þpmtkyfukd oihftoufwmü xkdokdYaumif;BuD;ay;&ef bk&m;ocif
ESpfoufjcif;&Sdygapaomf.../
tufzf 0def; rufvD,kd'f
2 3
pum;OD;
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
aum&daum&d
aum&daum&d
aum&dEE
EE
E
oo
oo
oKMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif;KMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif;
KMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif;KMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif;
KMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif;
a&;om;jyKpkola&;om;jyKpkol
a&;om;jyKpkola&;om;jyKpkol
a&;om;jyKpkol
aum&dE
oKMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifukd a&;om;jyKpkolrSm wrefawmf
&SifaygvkjzpfNyD; wdarmaoESihftwlwuGa&;om;jyKpkcJhonf (2aum 1;1)/
&Sifaygvku pmapmifukda&;om;jyKpkcJhNyD;? wdarmaou yg0ifaomt&m
rsm;ukd od&Sdxm;í &Sifaygvka&;om;csufrsm;ukd tjynfht0oabmwlcJh
onfrSmusrf;abmiftoGm;tvmtm;jzifhodomxif&Sm;aeygonf/
aemufcHtajctaeaemufcHtajctae
aemufcHtajctaeaemufcHtajctae
aemufcHtajctae
aum&dE
oKtoif;awmfxHokdY a&;om;ay;ykdYcJhonfh aum&dE
oKMo0g'
pmyxrapmifwGif toif;awmfüjzpfysufaeaom ukd,fusifhw&m;azmuf
jyefrI? pdwf0rf;uGJrI? tvGJokH;pm;jyKvkyfrIrsm;tm; ruG,fr0SufESihf tckdif
trmajymqkdxm;onfh rSwfwrf;rsm;ukd uREkfyfwkdYawGU&onf/ 2aum 7;8
wGif aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;tm; 0rf;enf;aMuuGJapcJhaom pmwpfapmif
taMumif;ukd &Sifaygvkajymjyxm;onf/ þtcsufukdMunfhjcif;jzihf
,kHMunfolrsm;onf &Sifaygvk\pmukd aumif;aumif;rGefrGefvufrcHcJhMu
aMumif;uREkfyfwkdYem;vnf&onf/ trSefqkd&vQif 2aum 12;21ESihf 13;2
wkdYwGif yxrpmapmifü rdrdvdyfrla&;om;cJhaom tjypf'kp½dkufrsm;rS
aemifw&MuzkdY ajrmufjrm;pGmu jiif;qefcJhMuaMumif; &Sifaygvkod&Sdowd
jyKrdcJhonf/
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
aum&daum&d
aum&daum&d
aum&dEE
EE
E
oo
oo
oKMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif;KMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif;
KMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif;KMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif;
KMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif;
a&;om;jyKpkola&;om;jyKpkol
a&;om;jyKpkola&;om;jyKpkol
a&;om;jyKpkol
aum&dE
oKMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifukd a&;om;jyKpkolrSm wrefawmf
&SifaygvkjzpfNyD; wdarmaoESihftwlwuGa&;om;jyKpkcJhonf (2aum 1;1)/
&Sifaygvku pmapmifukda&;om;jyKpkcJhNyD;? wdarmaou yg0ifaomt&m
rsm;ukd od&Sdxm;í &Sifaygvka&;om;csufrsm;ukd tjynfht0oabmwlcJh
onfrSmusrf;abmiftoGm;tvmtm;jzifhodomxif&Sm;aeygonf/
aemufcHtajctaeaemufcHtajctae
aemufcHtajctaeaemufcHtajctae
aemufcHtajctae
aum&dE
oKtoif;awmfxHokdY a&;om;ay;ykdYcJhonfh aum&dE
oKMo0g'
pmyxrapmifwGif toif;awmfüjzpfysufaeaom ukd,fusifhw&m;azmuf
jyefrI? pdwf0rf;uGJrI? tvGJokH;pm;jyKvkyfrIrsm;tm; ruG,fr0SufESihf tckdif
trmajymqkdxm;onfh rSwfwrf;rsm;ukd uREkfyfwkdYawGU&onf/ 2aum 7;8
wGif aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;tm; 0rf;enf;aMuuGJapcJhaom pmwpfapmif
taMumif;ukd &Sifaygvkajymjyxm;onf/ þtcsufukdMunfhjcif;jzihf
,kHMunfolrsm;onf &Sifaygvk\pmukd aumif;aumif;rGefrGefvufrcHcJhMu
aMumif;uREkfyfwkdYem;vnf&onf/ trSefqkd&vQif 2aum 12;21ESihf 13;2
wkdYwGif yxrpmapmifü rdrdvdyfrla&;om;cJhaom tjypf'kp½dkufrsm;rS
aemifw&MuzkdY ajrmufjrm;pGmu jiif;qefcJhMuaMumif; &Sifaygvkod&Sdowd
jyKrdcJhonf/
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
&Sifaygvkonf aum&dE
oKNrdKU&Sdtoif;awmfukd oGm;a&mufvnfywf
cJhaomf vnf;xkdvnfywfrIonf aumif;aomvnfywfrIwpfckjzpfykHray:
cJhyg/ 2aum 2;1wGif &Sifaygvku aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;tm; rdrdonf
4if;wkdYxH vma&mufrvnfywf&jcif;rSm ]]0rf;enf;jcif;vnfywfrI}}ukd
aemufwpfcg rjzpfapvkdaomaMumihfjzpfonf[k ajymcJhonf/ xkdvnfywf
rIonf 0rf;enf;emusifzG,fjzpf&jcif;taMumif;t&if;tcsKdUukd þpmapmif
wGif vdyfrlajymqkdxm;onf/ yxrpmapmifü &Sifaygvkaz:jyajymqkdonfh
tjypf'kp½kdufrsm;rS aemifw&zdkY vltcsKdUu jiif;qefcJhMuaMumif;ukd uREkfyf
wkdYaz:jycJhNyD;jzpfonf (2aum 12;21? 13;2)/ xkdYtjyiftoif;awmfü
wrefawmfwpfyg;tjzpfESihf &Sifaygvkü&SdaomtcGihftmPmukd ar;cGef;
xkwfcJhaomolrsm;vnf;&SdcJhonf/ xkdyk*¾dKvfrsm;u &Sifaygvk\pmonf
]]av;vHaompm? wefckd;ESihfjynfhpkHaompm}} jzpfonf[kqkdMuaomfvnf;
vlcsif;awGUaomtcgwGifrl qGJaqmifrIr&Sdaomoljzpfonf[k ajymqkdcJh
Muonf (2aum 10;10)/ tjcm;olrsm;u &Sifaygvkonf tjcm;wref
awmfrsm;xufykdí edrfhusonf[k rSwf,lcJhMuonf (2aum 11;7-9)/
&Sifaygvkonf rdrdwdkYaum&dE
oKtoif;awmftm; tjcm;toif;awmf
rsm;xuf edrfhusouJhokdY qufqHaeonf[k rSwf,loltcsKdUvnf;&Sdaeao;
onf (2aum 12;13)/
þpmapmifwGif &Sifaygvku rdrd\wrefawmft½kduft&mESihf
qifhac:jcif;ukd ckcHumuG,fajymqkda&;om;&eftwGuftcsdefawmfawmf
rsm;rsm;ukd tokH;jyKxm;onf/ &Sifaygvku aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;tm;
bk&m;ocifonf rdrdukdwrefawmfwpfyg;jzpfvmzkdY qifhac:cJhNyD;olwkdYonf
rdrdwrefawmfjzpfjcif;\ oufaotaxmuftxm;rsm;jzpfaMumif;? rdrd
wrefawmfjzpfjcif;tm;jzihf vltajrmuftjrm;toufwmajymif;vJí
oGefoifavhusihfay;jcif;ukd cHMu&aMumif; today;cJhonf/ &Sifaygvku
toif;awmfukd tvkdawmfESihfnDaom toufwm&SifoefykHjzihf a&SUquf
&SifoefMu&ef? txl;ojzihf4if;wkdYykdifqkdifouJhokdY rykdifqkdifaomolrsm;xHü
4if;wkdY\csrf;om<u,f0rIukd ay;urf;a0iSMu&ef cGeftm;ay;cJhonf/
,aeYtwGufþusrf;apmifta&;ygykH,aeYtwGufþusrf;apmifta&;ygykH
,aeYtwGufþusrf;apmifta&;ygykH,aeYtwGufþusrf;apmifta&;ygykH
,aeYtwGufþusrf;apmifta&;ygykH
toif;awmfütjcm;,kHMunfolESihf jyóemrjzpfcJhzl;aom
,kHMunfol[lí rsm;rsm;pm;pm;r&Sdyg/ uREkfyfwkdYwnf;omjyóem&Sdaomol
r[kwfaMumif;ukd od&jcif;onf cGeftm;&p&myifjzpfonf/ &Sifaygvk\
trIawmfvkyfief;ukd ar;cGef;xkwfcJhMuonf/ &Sifaygvkukdvnf;aumif;?
&Sifaygvk\trIawmfvkyfief;ukdvnf;aumif;? &Sifaygvk\yifukdp½kdufukd
vnf;aumif; oabmrusaomolrsm; aum&dE
oKNrdKUü&SdcJhonf/ c&pfawmf
\ukd,fcE¨mawmfü uREkfyfwkdYESihftjcm;,kHMunfolrsm;Mum;ü &Sdaeaom
jyóemtm;rnfokdYajz&Sif;&rnfhtaMumif; tHhzG,fykHOyrmwpfckukd
&Sifaygvku uREkfyfwkdYtm; ay;xm;onf/
ukd,fcE¨mawmfwpfckvkH;\ aumif;usKd;twGufuREkfyfwdkYyGihfyGifh
vif;vif;ajymqkdzkdYvkdtyfaomtcsdefrsm;&SdouJhokdY uREkfyfuif;uif;uGmuGm
aezkdYvkdtyfaomtcsdefrsm;vnf;&Sdonf/ okdYaomfxkdokdYjyKvkyfcJhaom
tcsdefrsm;wGif &Sifaygvkonf toif;awmftwGufvnf;aumif;? rdrdukd
qefYusifMuaomolrsm;twGufvnf;aumif; tNrJpkd;&drfylyefaecJhygonf/
&Sifaygvk\ ESvkH;om;onf olwkdYtwGufaomfvnf;aumif;? usKd;yJhysufpD;
aeaomolwkdY\qufqHa&;rsm;twGufvnf;aumif; aMuuGJcJh&onf/
okdYaomfolonf rdrdukdvnf;aumif;? rdrd\trIawmfvkyfief;ukd vnf;
aumif; qefYusifaecJhaomolrsm;ESihf jyefvnfoifhjrwfjcif;ukd &SmBuHí
6 7
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmifukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif;
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
&Sifaygvkonf aum&dE
oKNrdKU&Sdtoif;awmfukd oGm;a&mufvnfywf
cJhaomf vnf;xkdvnfywfrIonf aumif;aomvnfywfrIwpfckjzpfykHray:
cJhyg/ 2aum 2;1wGif &Sifaygvku aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;tm; rdrdonf
4if;wkdYxH vma&mufrvnfywf&jcif;rSm ]]0rf;enf;jcif;vnfywfrI}}ukd
aemufwpfcg rjzpfapvkdaomaMumihfjzpfonf[k ajymcJhonf/ xkdvnfywf
rIonf 0rf;enf;emusifzG,fjzpf&jcif;taMumif;t&if;tcsKdUukd þpmapmif
wGif vdyfrlajymqkdxm;onf/ yxrpmapmifü &Sifaygvkaz:jyajymqkdonfh
tjypf'kp½kdufrsm;rS aemifw&zdkY vltcsKdUu jiif;qefcJhMuaMumif;ukd uREkfyf
wkdYaz:jycJhNyD;jzpfonf (2aum 12;21? 13;2)/ xkdYtjyiftoif;awmfü
wrefawmfwpfyg;tjzpfESihf &Sifaygvkü&SdaomtcGihftmPmukd ar;cGef;
xkwfcJhaomolrsm;vnf;&SdcJhonf/ xkdyk*¾dKvfrsm;u &Sifaygvk\pmonf
]]av;vHaompm? wefckd;ESihfjynfhpkHaompm}} jzpfonf[kqkdMuaomfvnf;
vlcsif;awGUaomtcgwGifrl qGJaqmifrIr&Sdaomoljzpfonf[k ajymqkdcJh
Muonf (2aum 10;10)/ tjcm;olrsm;u &Sifaygvkonf tjcm;wref
awmfrsm;xufykdí edrfhusonf[k rSwf,lcJhMuonf (2aum 11;7-9)/
&Sifaygvkonf rdrdwdkYaum&dE
oKtoif;awmftm; tjcm;toif;awmf
rsm;xuf edrfhusouJhokdY qufqHaeonf[k rSwf,loltcsKdUvnf;&Sdaeao;
onf (2aum 12;13)/
þpmapmifwGif &Sifaygvku rdrd\wrefawmft½kduft&mESihf
qifhac:jcif;ukd ckcHumuG,fajymqkda&;om;&eftwGuftcsdefawmfawmf
rsm;rsm;ukd tokH;jyKxm;onf/ &Sifaygvku aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;tm;
bk&m;ocifonf rdrdukdwrefawmfwpfyg;jzpfvmzkdY qifhac:cJhNyD;olwkdYonf
rdrdwrefawmfjzpfjcif;\ oufaotaxmuftxm;rsm;jzpfaMumif;? rdrd
wrefawmfjzpfjcif;tm;jzihf vltajrmuftjrm;toufwmajymif;vJí
oGefoifavhusihfay;jcif;ukd cHMu&aMumif; today;cJhonf/ &Sifaygvku
toif;awmfukd tvkdawmfESihfnDaom toufwm&SifoefykHjzihf a&SUquf
&SifoefMu&ef? txl;ojzihf4if;wkdYykdifqkdifouJhokdY rykdifqkdifaomolrsm;xHü
4if;wkdY\csrf;om<u,f0rIukd ay;urf;a0iSMu&ef cGeftm;ay;cJhonf/
,aeYtwGufþusrf;apmifta&;ygykH,aeYtwGufþusrf;apmifta&;ygykH
,aeYtwGufþusrf;apmifta&;ygykH,aeYtwGufþusrf;apmifta&;ygykH
,aeYtwGufþusrf;apmifta&;ygykH
toif;awmfütjcm;,kHMunfolESihf jyóemrjzpfcJhzl;aom
,kHMunfol[lí rsm;rsm;pm;pm;r&Sdyg/ uREkfyfwkdYwnf;omjyóem&Sdaomol
r[kwfaMumif;ukd od&jcif;onf cGeftm;&p&myifjzpfonf/ &Sifaygvk\
trIawmfvkyfief;ukd ar;cGef;xkwfcJhMuonf/ &Sifaygvkukdvnf;aumif;?
&Sifaygvk\trIawmfvkyfief;ukdvnf;aumif;? &Sifaygvk\yifukdp½kdufukd
vnf;aumif; oabmrusaomolrsm; aum&dE
oKNrdKUü&SdcJhonf/ c&pfawmf
\ukd,fcE¨mawmfü uREkfyfwkdYESihftjcm;,kHMunfolrsm;Mum;ü &Sdaeaom
jyóemtm;rnfokdYajz&Sif;&rnfhtaMumif; tHhzG,fykHOyrmwpfckukd
&Sifaygvku uREkfyfwkdYtm; ay;xm;onf/
ukd,fcE¨mawmfwpfckvkH;\ aumif;usKd;twGufuREkfyfwdkYyGihfyGifh
vif;vif;ajymqkdzkdYvkdtyfaomtcsdefrsm;&SdouJhokdY uREkfyfuif;uif;uGmuGm
aezkdYvkdtyfaomtcsdefrsm;vnf;&Sdonf/ okdYaomfxkdokdYjyKvkyfcJhaom
tcsdefrsm;wGif &Sifaygvkonf toif;awmftwGufvnf;aumif;? rdrdukd
qefYusifMuaomolrsm;twGufvnf;aumif; tNrJpkd;&drfylyefaecJhygonf/
&Sifaygvk\ ESvkH;om;onf olwkdYtwGufaomfvnf;aumif;? usKd;yJhysufpD;
aeaomolwkdY\qufqHa&;rsm;twGufvnf;aumif; aMuuGJcJh&onf/
okdYaomfolonf rdrdukdvnf;aumif;? rdrd\trIawmfvkyfief;ukd vnf;
aumif; qefYusifaecJhaomolrsm;ESihf jyefvnfoifhjrwfjcif;ukd &SmBuHí
6 7
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmifukd ed'gef;ysKd;jcif;
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
11
11
1
qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif;qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif;
qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif;qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif;
qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif;
2aum 1;1-11 ukdzwf½Iyg/
aum&dE
oKMo0g'pm 'kwd,apmiftm;a&;om;jyKpkcJholESihf pyfvsOf;
íar;cGef;xkwfp&mr&Sdyg/ &Sifaygvku tcef;i,f 1wGif olYukd,folÜ þ
pmapmiftm;a&;om;jyKpkcJholtjzpf az:jycJhonf/ &Sifaygvku olYukd,f
olbk&m;ocif\tvkdawmftm;jzihf ocifa,½Ic&pf\wrefawmfjzpf
aMumif;rdwfqufcJhonfukd owdjyKyg/ olonfrdrd\qifhac:jcif;ukd
vnf;aumif;? c&pfawmf\ukd,fcE¨mawmf&Sd rdrd\t½kduft&mukdvnf;
aumif; &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;od&Sdem;vnfxm;onf/ &Sifaygvkonf þtrI
awmfvkyfief;wGif ,kHMunfpdwfcsrI&SdcJhí bk&m;ocifbkef;awmftwGuf
ukd,fhukdukd,ft<uif;rJhay;tyfxm;cJhonf/ olwrefawmfwpfyg;jzpfonfh
tm;avsmfpGm vkyfykdifcGihftmPmukd &&Sdxm;onf/ olajymqkdaomt&m
rsm;ukd ocifbk&m;xHrSvmaomt&mrsm;ozG,frSwf,lí *½kwpkduf
pOf;pm;okH;oyf&ef vkdtyfonf/
þpmapmifonf ocifbk&m;ünDtpfukdwpfOD;jzpfaom wdarm
aoxHrSvnf; a&muf&SdvmcJhygonf/ olwkdYonf aum&dE
oKNrdKU&Sdtoif;awmf
xHokdYvnf;aumif;? ,aeYacwfwGif *&dEkdifiH[kodxm;Muaom tcg,jynf
wpf0kdufrStoif;awmfrsm;xHokdYvnf;aumif; twlwuGa&;om;ay;ykdYcJh
xkdolwkdY\aumif;usKd;ukd a&S;½IcJhonf/ þusrf;apmifonf c&pfawmf\
ukd,fcE¨mawmfü qufqHa&;jyóemrsm;ukd &ifqkdifBuHKawGUae&aom
olrsm;tm;vkH;twGuf taxmuftuljzpfapygonf/
aum&dE
oKMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifonf uREkfyfwkdY\tv,fü&Sdae
aomtjypf'kp½kdufukd vspfvsL½I&efrSm uREkfyfwkdYtwGuftvGefvG,fulonfh
tjzpfukdvnf; owday;aomusrf;jzpfonf/ þusrf;wpfavQmufvkH;wGif
wrefawmfBuD;onf aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;tm; tjypf'kp½kdufonf
EkdifiHawmf\ trIawmfvkyfief;ukd raESmuf,SufzkdY xkdtjypf'kp½kdufukd
ayghayghwefwefrxm;bJ? tvsiftjrefukdifwG,fajz&Sif;&rnfhtaMumif;
pdefac:cJhonf/
þpmapmifwGif &Sifaygvku,kHMunfolrsm;\ cGeftm;Av
twGufppfrSefaomt&if;tjrpfukd xkwfazmfjyoay;cJhonf/ &Sifaygvkk\
*kPf,l0g<um;jcif;onf rdrdür[kwfouJhokdY rdrd\cGeftm;AvwGifvnf;
r[kwfcJhyg/ toufwm&Sdbk&m;ocifxm0&bk&m;\ trIawmfvkyfief;ü
omjzpfonf/ ocifbk&m;onf rdrdtay:ü,kHMunfukd;pm;aom omref
,kHMunfolrsm;ukd tokH;jyK&efrnfokdYvkdvm;rI&Sdaeonfukd &Sifaygvku
uREkfyfwkdYukd jyoay;onf/
aum&dE
oKMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifwGif ppfrSefaom0dnmOfa&;&m
trIawmfvkyfief;\ oabmobm0ukd &Sifaygvkuxkwfazmfjyoay;xm;
onf/ þtrIawmfvkyfief;onf avmuDwefckd;tmPmESihfcsrf;om<u,f0
jcif;wkdYukd pdwf0ifpm;aom trIawmfvkyfief;r[kwfbJ? pdwfESvkH;ESdrfhcsjcif;?
twåpdwfuif;rJhjcif;wkdYjzihf vkyfaqmif&aomtrIawmfjzpfonf/
þtcsufonfuREkfyfwkdY\ acwfumvü tNrJvkdvkdowday;&onfhtcsuf
jzpfonf/
8
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
11
11
1
qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif;qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif;
qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif;qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif;
qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif;
2aum 1;1-11 ukdzwf½Iyg/
aum&dE
oKMo0g'pm 'kwd,apmiftm;a&;om;jyKpkcJholESihf pyfvsOf;
íar;cGef;xkwfp&mr&Sdyg/ &Sifaygvku tcef;i,f 1wGif olYukd,folÜ þ
pmapmiftm;a&;om;jyKpkcJholtjzpf az:jycJhonf/ &Sifaygvku olYukd,f
olbk&m;ocif\tvkdawmftm;jzihf ocifa,½Ic&pf\wrefawmfjzpf
aMumif;rdwfqufcJhonfukd owdjyKyg/ olonfrdrd\qifhac:jcif;ukd
vnf;aumif;? c&pfawmf\ukd,fcE¨mawmf&Sd rdrd\t½kduft&mukdvnf;
aumif; &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;od&Sdem;vnfxm;onf/ &Sifaygvkonf þtrI
awmfvkyfief;wGif ,kHMunfpdwfcsrI&SdcJhí bk&m;ocifbkef;awmftwGuf
ukd,fhukdukd,ft<uif;rJhay;tyfxm;cJhonf/ olwrefawmfwpfyg;jzpfonfh
tm;avsmfpGm vkyfykdifcGihftmPmukd &&Sdxm;onf/ olajymqkdaomt&m
rsm;ukd ocifbk&m;xHrSvmaomt&mrsm;ozG,frSwf,lí *½kwpkduf
pOf;pm;okH;oyf&ef vkdtyfonf/
þpmapmifonf ocifbk&m;ünDtpfukdwpfOD;jzpfaom wdarm
aoxHrSvnf; a&muf&SdvmcJhygonf/ olwkdYonf aum&dE
oKNrdKU&Sdtoif;awmf
xHokdYvnf;aumif;? ,aeYacwfwGif *&dEkdifiH[kodxm;Muaom tcg,jynf
wpf0kdufrStoif;awmfrsm;xHokdYvnf;aumif; twlwuGa&;om;ay;ykdYcJh
xkdolwkdY\aumif;usKd;ukd a&S;½IcJhonf/ þusrf;apmifonf c&pfawmf\
ukd,fcE¨mawmfü qufqHa&;jyóemrsm;ukd &ifqkdifBuHKawGUae&aom
olrsm;tm;vkH;twGuf taxmuftuljzpfapygonf/
aum&dE
oKMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifonf uREkfyfwkdY\tv,fü&Sdae
aomtjypf'kp½kdufukd vspfvsL½I&efrSm uREkfyfwkdYtwGuftvGefvG,fulonfh
tjzpfukdvnf; owday;aomusrf;jzpfonf/ þusrf;wpfavQmufvkH;wGif
wrefawmfBuD;onf aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;tm; tjypf'kp½kdufonf
EkdifiHawmf\ trIawmfvkyfief;ukd raESmuf,SufzkdY xkdtjypf'kp½kdufukd
ayghayghwefwefrxm;bJ? tvsiftjrefukdifwG,fajz&Sif;&rnfhtaMumif;
pdefac:cJhonf/
þpmapmifwGif &Sifaygvku,kHMunfolrsm;\ cGeftm;Av
twGufppfrSefaomt&if;tjrpfukd xkwfazmfjyoay;cJhonf/ &Sifaygvkk\
*kPf,l0g<um;jcif;onf rdrdür[kwfouJhokdY rdrd\cGeftm;AvwGifvnf;
r[kwfcJhyg/ toufwm&Sdbk&m;ocifxm0&bk&m;\ trIawmfvkyfief;ü
omjzpfonf/ ocifbk&m;onf rdrdtay:ü,kHMunfukd;pm;aom omref
,kHMunfolrsm;ukd tokH;jyK&efrnfokdYvkdvm;rI&Sdaeonfukd &Sifaygvku
uREkfyfwkdYukd jyoay;onf/
aum&dE
oKMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifwGif ppfrSefaom0dnmOfa&;&m
trIawmfvkyfief;\ oabmobm0ukd &Sifaygvkuxkwfazmfjyoay;xm;
onf/ þtrIawmfvkyfief;onf avmuDwefckd;tmPmESihfcsrf;om<u,f0
jcif;wkdYukd pdwf0ifpm;aom trIawmfvkyfief;r[kwfbJ? pdwfESvkH;ESdrfhcsjcif;?
twåpdwfuif;rJhjcif;wkdYjzihf vkyfaqmif&aomtrIawmfjzpfonf/
þtcsufonfuREkfyfwkdY\ acwfumvü tNrJvkdvkdowday;&onfhtcsuf
jzpfonf/
8
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
Muonf/ þpmapmifukd xkda'owpf0kdufrS toif;awmfrsm;ü vufqifh
urf;zwf&IMuzkdY &SifaygvkarQmfvifhxm;onfukd owdjyKyg/
&Sifaygvku ,kHMunfolwkdYukd crnf;awmfbk&m;ESihf ocifa,½I
xHrSvmaom aus;Zl;awmfESihfNidrfoufjcif;wkdYjzihf EIwfcGef;qufcJhonf/
aus;Zl;awmfqkdonfrSm rxkdufrwefbJ&&Sdaombk&m;ocif\ rsufESmom
ay;rIjzpfonf/ þ,kHMunfolrsm;onf rxkdufwefaomþ*½kPmawmfukd
toufwmü cHpm;Mu&rnfhta&;rSm &Sifaygvk\pdwfqE´jzpfonf/ olwkdY
\tv,fü &ifqkdif½kef;uefae&onfht&mrsm;ukd axmuf½IvQif þt&m
onftcGHoufoufom&Sdaom aumif;BuD;r*Fvmwpfyg;r[kwfyg/
þ,kHMunfolrsm;onf bk&m;ocifxHrS rxkdufwefaomrsufESmomay;rI
ukdvkdtyfaeMuonf/ bk&m;ocifxHrS Nidrfoufjcif;ukdvnf; olwkdYcHpm;Mu
zkdY&SifaygvkqE´&SdcJhonf/ þNidrfoufjcif;onf bk&m;ocifESihf oifhwifh
rSefuefaom qufqH&if;ESD;rIrSa&mufvmonf/ þNidrfoufjcif;onf
bk&m;ocifESihfqufqHaygif;oif;jcif;ü &Sifoefjcif;? toufwm\cyfodrf;
aomtajctaersm;ü bk&m;ocif\rsufarSmufjyKjcif;ESifhxdef;csKyfjcif;
wkdYudk od&Sdem;vnfjcif;rSa&mufvmonf/ þonfrSmrdrd\pmzwfy&dowf
BuD;twGufxm;&Sdaom &Sifaygvk\pdwfqE´jzpfonf/
tcef;i,f 3 wGif &Sifaygvku ocifa,½I\crnf;awmfbk&m;
ocifxHü csD;rGrf;jcif;ukd ay;urf;jcif;jzihf tpjyKcJhonf/ olonfbk&m;
ocifukd oem;jcif;*½kPm\tb? oufomjcif;trsKd;rsKd;wkdY\t&Sifjzpf
jcif;twGuf txl;csD;rGrf;cJhonfukd owdjyKyg/ þtcsuftm;jzihf uREkfyfwdkY
qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ukdb,faomtcgwGifrQ &ifqkdifcHpm;zkdYrvkdyg[k rqkdvkdyg/
tcef;i,f 4 wGif &Sifaygvku aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;tm; bk&m;ocif
onf rdrd\om;orD;rsm;ukd 4if;wkdY\tcuftcJjyóemrsm;ü ESpfodrfh
ay;íoufomjcif;ukd a&mufapaMumif; today;cJhonf/ qif;&J'ku©onf
b0\tpdwftykdif;wpfckjzpfonf/ ocifa,½Iþavmuü aexkdif
&SifoefcJhpOfüyif qif;&J'ku©ukdBuHKawGUcHpm;cJh&onf/
qif;&J'ku©onf tjypfaMumifhusdefqJjcif;cH&aom þavmuBuD;
\tpdwftykdif;wpfckjzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyfwkdYüoem;jcif;*½kPmESihfjynfh
awmfrlaombk&m;ocif&Sdaeygonf/ *½kPmw&m;\t&Sifjzpfonfh
tm;avsmfpGm bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyfwkdY\emusifxdcdkufrIrsm;ESihf cHpm;rI
rsm;ukd em;vnfoabmaygufaeygonf/ uREkfyfwkdYütjypf&SdMuaomfvnf;
olonf uREkfyfwkdYukdcspfjcif;? *½kPmoufjcif;wkdYESifhtwl uREkfyfwkdY ESihftwl
idka<u;íuREkfyfwkdYESihftwl 0rf;ajrmufaeygonf (a,m[ef 11;33-36)/
&Sifaygvkajymqkdxm;csuft& bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyfwkdYrcsd
rqefYcHpm;&csdefü uREkfyfwkdYESihftwl&Sday;aom oufomjcif;wkdY\t&Sif
vnf;jzpfonf/ bk&m;ocif\rsufarSmufjyKjcif;u pdwfylyefjcif;rsm;ukd
ajyaysmufapí uREkfyfwkdYtm;,kHMunfpdwfcsrIukday;onf/ uREkfyfwkdYcHpm;
ae&aomt&mukd bk&m;ocifuvnf; cHpm;ay;aMumif; &Sifaygvku
ajymjyxm;onf/ uREkfyfwkdY'ku©a&mufaomtcsdefü uREkfyfwkdYukdvufurf;
ulnDjcif;ukd oltvGefESpfouftm;&ygonf/ bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyfwkdY\
tcuftcJ'ku©rsm;ukd z,f&Sm;ay;rnfr[kwfaomfvnf;? uREkfyfwkdY\
ppfaMumpkHprf;jcif;rsm;ü bk&m;ocif\tHhzG,frsufarSmufawmfukd aocsm
cHpm;EkdifMuygonf/ uREkfyfwkdY\ 'ku©a0'emrsm;cH&pOfwpfavQmufvkH;wGif
bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyffwkdYukdcGeftm;opfrsm;ay;í wkdufwGef;ygvdrfhrnf/
uREkfyfwkdYonf bk&m;ocif\tvm;wlESpfodrfhjcif;ESihftwl
10 11
qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif;
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif
Muonf/ þpmapmifukd xkda'owpf0kdufrS toif;awmfrsm;ü vufqifh
urf;zwf&IMuzkdY &SifaygvkarQmfvifhxm;onfukd owdjyKyg/
&Sifaygvku ,kHMunfolwkdYukd crnf;awmfbk&m;ESihf ocifa,½I
xHrSvmaom aus;Zl;awmfESihfNidrfoufjcif;wkdYjzihf EIwfcGef;qufcJhonf/
aus;Zl;awmfqkdonfrSm rxkdufrwefbJ&&Sdaombk&m;ocif\ rsufESmom
ay;rIjzpfonf/ þ,kHMunfolrsm;onf rxkdufwefaomþ*½kPmawmfukd
toufwmü cHpm;Mu&rnfhta&;rSm &Sifaygvk\pdwfqE´jzpfonf/ olwkdY
\tv,fü &ifqkdif½kef;uefae&onfht&mrsm;ukd axmuf½IvQif þt&m
onftcGHoufoufom&Sdaom aumif;BuD;r*Fvmwpfyg;r[kwfyg/
þ,kHMunfolrsm;onf bk&m;ocifxHrS rxkdufwefaomrsufESmomay;rI
ukdvkdtyfaeMuonf/ bk&m;ocifxHrS Nidrfoufjcif;ukdvnf; olwkdYcHpm;Mu
zkdY&SifaygvkqE´&SdcJhonf/ þNidrfoufjcif;onf bk&m;ocifESihf oifhwifh
rSefuefaom qufqH&if;ESD;rIrSa&mufvmonf/ þNidrfoufjcif;onf
bk&m;ocifESihfqufqHaygif;oif;jcif;ü &Sifoefjcif;? toufwm\cyfodrf;
aomtajctaersm;ü bk&m;ocif\rsufarSmufjyKjcif;ESifhxdef;csKyfjcif;
wkdYudk od&Sdem;vnfjcif;rSa&mufvmonf/ þonfrSmrdrd\pmzwfy&dowf
BuD;twGufxm;&Sdaom &Sifaygvk\pdwfqE´jzpfonf/
tcef;i,f 3 wGif &Sifaygvku ocifa,½I\crnf;awmfbk&m;
ocifxHü csD;rGrf;jcif;ukd ay;urf;jcif;jzihf tpjyKcJhonf/ olonfbk&m;
ocifukd oem;jcif;*½kPm\tb? oufomjcif;trsKd;rsKd;wkdY\t&Sifjzpf
jcif;twGuf txl;csD;rGrf;cJhonfukd owdjyKyg/ þtcsuftm;jzihf uREkfyfwdkY
qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ukdb,faomtcgwGifrQ &ifqkdifcHpm;zkdYrvkdyg[k rqkdvkdyg/
tcef;i,f 4 wGif &Sifaygvku aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;tm; bk&m;ocif
onf rdrd\om;orD;rsm;ukd 4if;wkdY\tcuftcJjyóemrsm;ü ESpfodrfh
ay;íoufomjcif;ukd a&mufapaMumif; today;cJhonf/ qif;&J'ku©onf
b0\tpdwftykdif;wpfckjzpfonf/ ocifa,½Iþavmuü aexkdif
&SifoefcJhpOfüyif qif;&J'ku©ukdBuHKawGUcHpm;cJh&onf/
qif;&J'ku©onf tjypfaMumifhusdefqJjcif;cH&aom þavmuBuD;
\tpdwftykdif;wpfckjzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyfwkdYüoem;jcif;*½kPmESihfjynfh
awmfrlaombk&m;ocif&Sdaeygonf/ *½kPmw&m;\t&Sifjzpfonfh
tm;avsmfpGm bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyfwkdY\emusifxdcdkufrIrsm;ESihf cHpm;rI
rsm;ukd em;vnfoabmaygufaeygonf/ uREkfyfwkdYütjypf&SdMuaomfvnf;
olonf uREkfyfwkdYukdcspfjcif;? *½kPmoufjcif;wkdYESifhtwl uREkfyfwkdY ESihftwl
idka<u;íuREkfyfwkdYESihftwl 0rf;ajrmufaeygonf (a,m[ef 11;33-36)/
&Sifaygvkajymqkdxm;csuft& bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyfwkdYrcsd
rqefYcHpm;&csdefü uREkfyfwkdYESihftwl&Sday;aom oufomjcif;wkdY\t&Sif
vnf;jzpfonf/ bk&m;ocif\rsufarSmufjyKjcif;u pdwfylyefjcif;rsm;ukd
ajyaysmufapí uREkfyfwkdYtm;,kHMunfpdwfcsrIukday;onf/ uREkfyfwkdYcHpm;
ae&aomt&mukd bk&m;ocifuvnf; cHpm;ay;aMumif; &Sifaygvku
ajymjyxm;onf/ uREkfyfwkdY'ku©a&mufaomtcsdefü uREkfyfwkdYukdvufurf;
ulnDjcif;ukd oltvGefESpfouftm;&ygonf/ bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyfwkdY\
tcuftcJ'ku©rsm;ukd z,f&Sm;ay;rnfr[kwfaomfvnf;? uREkfyfwkdY\
ppfaMumpkHprf;jcif;rsm;ü bk&m;ocif\tHhzG,frsufarSmufawmfukd aocsm
cHpm;EkdifMuygonf/ uREkfyfwkdY\ 'ku©a0'emrsm;cH&pOfwpfavQmufvkH;wGif
bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyffwkdYukdcGeftm;opfrsm;ay;í wkdufwGef;ygvdrfhrnf/
uREkfyfwkdYonf bk&m;ocif\tvm;wlESpfodrfhjcif;ESihftwl
10 11
qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif;
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif12 13
tjcm;olrsm;ukd ESpfodrfhay;EkdifMurnfhtaMumif; bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyf
wkdYBuHKawGU&aom qif;&J'ku©rsm;ü uREkfyfwkdYukdESpfodrfhay;aMumif;
tcef;i,f 4wGif &SifaygvkuuREkfyfwkdYukd today;xm;onf/ rMumao;
rDESpfrsm;wGif ppfaMumpkHprf;jcif;rsm;pGmukd &ifqkdif&zkdY ocifbk&m;u
uREkfyfukd tcGihfaumif;ay;cJhonf/ þtawGUtBuHKtm;jzihf uREkfyfonf
tjcm;olrsm; awGUBuHKcJh&rnfht&mrsm;tay:ü ykdíoabmaygufvmcJh&
onf/ uREkfyf &ifqkdifBuHKawGUcJh&aomtvm;wljyóemrsm;ukd &ifqkdif
BuHKawGU ae&aom olrsm;twGuf ykdíav;eufaom *½kPmw&m;ESihf
cHpm;csufwkdYjzihf uREkfyf a&;Ekdif? ajymEkdifvmcJhonf/ uREkfyfonfOD;aESmuf
A[kokwoufoufjzihfr[kwfbJ tawGUtBuHKrSa&;ajymcJhonf/ vlwkdY
&ifqkdifjzwfoef; ae&aomt&mrsm;ukd uREkfyfykdívG,fulpGm em;vnf
vmonf/ taMumif;rSmxkduJhokdYaomcufcJemusifrItcsKdUukd &ifqkdif
BuHKawGUzkdY tcGihfaumif;uREkfyfü &SdcJhaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ qif;&J'ku©ukd
BuHKawGUzkdY tcGihfaumif;wpfckESihftwl omíBuD;rm;aom wm0efwpfck
vnf; vkdufygvmonf/ omíBuD;rm;aom oem;jcif;*½kPmjzihf
trIawmftwGuf jyifqifrGrf;rHay;&ef bk&m;ocifu þtawGUtBuHKrsm;
ukd uREkfyfwkdYtm;BuHKawGUapjcif;jzpfonf/ bk&m;ocif\ESpfodrfhjcif;ESihf
oufomapjcif;ukd &&SdcHpm;cJhMuaomuREkfyfwkdYonfteD;tem;rS 'ku©
a&mufaeaomolrsm;xHü tvm;wlESpfodrfhjcif;ukd ay;MuzdkY qifhac:jcif;
cHMu&onf/ qif;&J'ku©awGUjcif;ESihf bk&m;ocif\ ESpfodrfhjcif;ukd
BuHKawGUcHpm;jcif;\t"dyÜg,fukd em;vnfzkdYbk&m;ocifu oihfukdoGefoif
ay;aeygonf/ xkdokdYtm;jzihf oifonfteD;tem;rS vlwkdYukdykdí
xda&muf
pGmyHhykd;ulnDEkdifrnfjzpfonf/
ocifa,½Iukd,fwkdifvnf; qif;&J'ku©ukdcHpm;cJh&ouJhokdY uREkfyf
wkdYonfvnf; tjypf'kp½kdufESihfjynfhaeonfh þavmuBuD;wGif ajzmifhrwf
jcif;twGufaMumifh qif;&J'ku©BuHKawGU&rnfhtaMumif; &Sifaygvku uREkfyf
wkYdukdtckdiftrmajymjyxm;onf (i,f 5)/ bk&m;ocif\uwdawmfrSm
ocifc&pfawmfü ykdí'ku©a&mufavavuREkfyfwkdY\ oufomjcif;rSm
vnf;ykdíBuD;avavjzpfrnf[líjzpfonf/ uREkfyfwkdYqif;&J'ku©a&mufcsdef
übk&m;ocifonfuREkfyfwkdYukd pGefYypfoGm;rnfr[kwfyg/ ESpfodrfhoufom
apjcif;qkdonfrSm emusifrIESihfqif;&J'ku© r&Sdjcif;ukdrqkdvkdyg/ ESpfodrfh
oufomapjcif;qkdonfrSm xkdt&mrsm;ukd&ifqkdifzkdY cGeftm;jzpfonf/
ppfaMumpkHprf;jcif;onf qufvufí&Sdaernfjzpfaomfvnf;? bk&m;ocif
\ESpfodrfhoufomapjcif;onf tqkH;wkdifwnfMunfzkdY uREkfyfwkdYukd cGeftm;
opfrsm;oGef;avmif;ay;onf/ uREkfyfwkdY\vrf;c&D;ü a&muf&Sdvmaom
ppfaMumpkHprf;jcif;rsm;\tEkdifykdif;jcif;ukd uREkfyfwkdYcHzkdYrvkdtyfyg/ bk&m;
ocif\ESpfodrfhoufomapjcif;onf uREkfyfwkdYukd0rf;ajrmuf&TifjrL;
aeaom atmifEkdifolrsm;jzpfvmMuzkdY vkdtyfaom t&mtm;vHk;ukd ay;yg
vdrfhrnf/
&Sifaygvku
aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;tm; wrefawmfBuD;rsm;yif
toufwmü 'ku©a0'emrsm;ukd BuHKawGUcHpm;cJhMu&aMumif;today;cJh
onf (i,f 6)/ olwkdYonf xkd'ku©a0'emrsm;ukd axG;ykdufcJhMuNyD; xkdt&m
onfwpfpdwfwpfykdif;tm;jzihf aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;twGufjzpfaMumif;
ukdem;vnf;oabmaygufcJhMuonf/ wrefawmfBuD;rsm;onf rdrdwkdYBuHK
awGU&aomppfaMumpkHprf;jcif;rsm;tm;jzihf aum&dE
oKtoif;om;rsm;xHü
qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ü uREkfyfwkdY\oufomjcif;
aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif12 13
tjcm;olrsm;ukd ESpfodrfhay;EkdifMurnfhtaMumif; bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyf
wkdYBuHKawGU&aom qif;&J'ku©rsm;ü uREkfyfwkdYukdESpfodrfhay;aMumif;
tcef;i,f 4wGif &SifaygvkuuREkfyfwkdYukd today;xm;onf/ rMumao;
rDESpfrsm;wGif ppfaMumpkHprf;jcif;rsm;pGmukd &ifqkdif&zkdY ocifbk&m;u
uREkfyfukd tcGihfaumif;ay;cJhonf/ þtawGUtBuHKtm;jzihf uREkfyfonf
tjcm;olrsm; awGUBuHKcJh&rnfht&mrsm;tay:ü ykdíoabmaygufvmcJh&
onf/ uREkfyf &ifqkdifBuHKawGUcJh&aomtvm;wljyóemrsm;ukd &ifqkdif
BuHKawGU ae&aom olrsm;twGuf ykdíav;eufaom *½kPmw&m;ESihf
cHpm;csufwkdYjzihf uREkfyf a&;Ekdif? ajymEkdifvmcJhonf/ uREkfyfonfOD;aESmuf
A[kokwoufoufjzihfr[kwfbJ tawGUtBuHKrSa&;ajymcJhonf/ vlwkdY
&ifqkdifjzwfoef; ae&aomt&mrsm;ukd uREkfyfykdívG,fulpGm em;vnf
vmonf/ taMumif;rSmxkduJhokdYaomcufcJemusifrItcsKdUukd &ifqkdif
BuHKawGUzkdY tcGihfaumif;uREkfyfü &SdcJhaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ qif;&J'ku©ukd
BuHKawGUzkdY tcGihfaumif;wpfckESihftwl omíBuD;rm;aom wm0efwpfck
vnf; vkdufygvmonf/ omíBuD;rm;aom oem;jcif;*½kPmjzihf
trIawmftwGuf jyifqifrGrf;rHay;&ef bk&m;ocifu þtawGUtBuHKrsm;
ukd uREkfyfwkdYtm;BuHKawGUapjcif;jzpfonf/ bk&m;ocif\ESpfodrfhjcif;ESihf
oufomapjcif;ukd &&SdcHpm;cJhMuaomuREkfyfwkdYonfteD;tem;rS 'ku©
a&mufaeaomolrsm;xHü tvm;wlESpfodrfhjcif;ukd ay;MuzdkY qifhac:jcif;
cHMu&onf/ qif;&J'ku©awGUjcif;ESihf bk&m;ocif\ ESpfodrfhjcif;ukd
BuHKawGUcHpm;jcif;\t"dyÜg,fukd em;vnfzkdYbk&m;ocifu oihfukdoGefoif
ay;aeygonf/ xkdokdYtm;jzihf oifonfteD;tem;rS vlwkdYukdykdí
xda&muf
pGmyHhykd;ulnDEkdifrnfjzpfonf/
ocifa,½Iukd,fwkdifvnf; qif;&J'ku©ukdcHpm;cJh&ouJhokdY uREkfyf
wkdYonfvnf; tjypf'kp½kdufESihfjynfhaeonfh þavmuBuD;wGif ajzmifhrwf
jcif;twGufaMumifh qif;&J'ku©BuHKawGU&rnfhtaMumif; &Sifaygvku uREkfyf
wkYdukdtckdiftrmajymjyxm;onf (i,f 5)/ bk&m;ocif\uwdawmfrSm
ocifc&pfawmfü ykdí'ku©a&mufavavuREkfyfwkdY\ oufomjcif;rSm
vnf;ykdíBuD;avavjzpfrnf[líjzpfonf/ uREkfyfwkdYqif;&J'ku©a&mufcsdef
übk&m;ocifonfuREkfyfwkdYukd pGefYypfoGm;rnfr[kwfyg/ ESpfodrfhoufom
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aum&dE
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17
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aum&dE
oKMo0gpm'kwd,apmif18 19
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